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The :focus pseudo class in CSS is used for styling an element that is currently targeted by the keyboard, or activated by the mouse. Here is an example:

textarea:focus {
    background: pink;

And here’s what that code looks like in action:

Any element (most commonly <input>s and <textarea>s) are in “focus” when they are selected and ready to enter text (like when a cursor is blinking.


Another use of the :focus pseudo class is “tabbing” through elements. Many browsers have a default focus state for tab selection, which is a dotted outline. It is quite easy to remove, but make sure to replace it with a suitable alternative if you do.

<a>s, <button>s<input>s, and textareas all have the :focus state by default, but you can give a focus state to any element in HTML5. Both the contenteditable and tabindex attributes work for this, as in this example:

<h1>HTML5 Methods for Making Things Tab-able</h1>

<p>All of the items below are tabbable. The text area and button are tabbable by default, and the divs use two different methods.</p>

<textarea tabindex="1">A textarea. Focus states work by default.</textarea>
<button tabindex="2">And I'm a button. Again, works by default.</button>
<div contenteditable tabindex="3">Divs don't usually have a focus state. But I'm special, because I'm <code>contenteditable</code>.</div>
<div tabindex="4">I'm another div, and I have a <code>tabindex</code>. You can't edit me like the div above, but you can tab to me.</div>
<textarea tabindex="-1">I can't be tabbed to. This is a terrible idea, generally, but it can be done using tabindex="-1". Notice that (if you click) I still have a focus state, even though you can't tab to me.</textarea>
:focus {
  background: pink;

div {
  margin: 16px 0;

textarea {
  width: 500px;

button {
  margin: 16px 0;
  display: block;

Browser Support

Chrome Safari Firefox Opera IE Android iOS
2+ 1.3+ Any 9.2+ 8+ Any Any

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